Protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in a blood-brain barrier-on-chip model and on postoperative delirium-like behaviour in mice.

TitleProtective effects of omega-3 fatty acids in a blood-brain barrier-on-chip model and on postoperative delirium-like behaviour in mice.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2023
AuthorsT Yang, R Velagapudi, C Kong, U Ko, V Kumar, P Brown, NO Franklin, X Zhang, AI Caceres, H Min, AJ Filiano, RM Rodriguiz, WC Wetsel, S Varghese, and N Terrando
JournalBja: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Start Pagee370
Paginatione370 - e380
Date Published02/2023

BACKGROUND: Peripheral surgical trauma can trigger neuroinflammation and ensuing neurological complications, such as delirium. The mechanisms whereby surgery contributes to postoperative neuroinflammation remain unclear and without effective therapies. Here, we developed a microfluidic-assisted blood-brain barrier (BBB) device and tested the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on neuroimmune interactions after orthopaedic surgery. METHODS: A microfluidic-assisted BBB device was established using primary human cells. Tight junction proteins, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), BBB permeability, and astrocytic networks were assessed after stimulation with interleukin (IL)-1β and in the presence or absence of a clinically available omega-3 fatty acid emulsion (Omegaven®; Fresenius Kabi, Bad Homburg, Germany). Mice were treated 1 h before orthopaedic surgery with 10 μl g-1 body weight of omega-3 fatty acid emulsion i.v. or equal volumes of saline. Changes in pericytes, perivascular macrophages, BBB opening, microglial activation, and inattention were evaluated. RESULTS: Omega-3 fatty acids protected barrier permeability, endothelial tight junctions, and VCAM-1 after exposure to IL-1β in the BBB model. In vivo studies confirmed that omega-3 fatty acid treatment inhibited surgery-induced BBB impairment, microglial activation, and delirium-like behaviour. We identified a novel role for pericyte loss and perivascular macrophage activation in mice after surgery, which were rescued by prophylaxis with i.v. omega-3 fatty acids. CONCLUSIONS: We present a new approach to study neuroimmune interactions relevant to perioperative recovery using a microphysiological BBB platform. Changes in barrier function, including dysregulation of pericytes and perivascular macrophages, provide new targets to reduce postoperative delirium.

Short TitleBja: British Journal of Anaesthesia